Cancers of a Different Color Fact Sheet

What’s your first line of defense against gynecologic cancers? Knowledge. Understanding the facts can help you recognize the sometimes silent symptoms so treatment can begin in the earliest stage possible.

Approximately 70,500 women are diagnosed with gynecologic cancer each year. The good news is that regular gynecologic screenings can find cancer early enough for treatment. Do you know what's even better? Some cancers can be prevented altogether with simple vaccines and lifestyle changes.

What are the symptoms?

Cancer ChartThe signs and symptoms below are often related to gynecologic cancer. However, not all women with gynecologic cancer have the same symptoms. And sometimes symptoms are difficult to recognize because they may be caused by or related to other conditions.

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge
  • Pelvic pain or pressure
  • Bloating
  • Changes in bathroom habits
  • Itching or burning of the vulva
  • Changes in vulva color or skin

What Should I ask my doctor?

Remember to discuss your risk factors with your doctor at every exam. If you show increased risk due to family history, DES exposure, HPV infection, or other factors, you may need to be seen more often than the average annual screening.

  • What is my risk?
  • When should I have my next Pap test?
  • What do my Pap test results mean?
  • Is the HPV test right for me?
  • When can I stop getting a Pap test?
  • Are there any other gynecologic cancer tests that I need, based on my personal health and family cancer history? If so, what are they? Why do I need them? How do they work?

How can I prevent gynecologic cancer or find it early?

While there is no known way to prevent all types of gynecologic cancer, there are things you can do that may help lower your chance of getting them or help to find them early. It is important to find gynecologic cancers early, when treatment can be most effective.

  • Pay attention to your body and know what’s normal for you
  • Maintain a healthy diet and weight
  • Avoid smoking
  • Practice safe sex
  • Know your family history and share it with your doctor
  • Get the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) vaccine and test
  • Get regular Pap tests

Types of Gynecologic Cancer

Gynecologic cancer is any cancer that starts in a woman’s reproductive organs. The five main types of gynecological cancer are: cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer.

Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer starts in the cervix and occurs most often in women over 40. It is the most common gynecologic cancer, and some types can be prevented by HPV vaccine. A regular pap test aids in early detection.
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer is cancer that starts in the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs that produce eggs. Symptoms of ovarian cancer may be vague. It is the fifth most common cancer in women.
Uterine Cancer
The uterus is made up of different tissue types and each is subject to different kinds of uterine cancer, the most common being endometrial cancer. Usually, uterine cancer occurs after menopause. Abnormal bleeding is a common symptom.
Vaginal Cancer
The vagina connects the vulva to the cervix. Cancer of the vagina is rare and has high survival rates. HPV can increase your risk of vaginal cancer.
Vulvar Cancer
The vulva are the female external genitalia. Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare diagnosis, representing about 5 percent of all gynecologic cancers. It usually appears as a lesion, so regular gynecologic exams aid in early detection.