References: Conflict of Interest

Journal Articles Consulted in Creating the Policy

  1. Wazana A. Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry: Is a gift ever just a gift? JAMA. 2000;283:373-80)
  2. Dana J, Loewenstein G.A. social science perspective on gifts to physicians from industry. JAMA. 2003;290:252-5
  3. Kaiser Family Foundation. Prescription drug trends 2007. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2007.
  4. Adair RF, Holmgren LR. Do drug samples influence resident prescribing behavior? A randomized trial. Am J Med. 2005 Aug;118(8):881-4
  5. Backer EL, et al. The value of pharmaceutical representative visits and medication samples in community-based family practices. J Fam Pract. 2000:49:811-6
  6. Boltri JM, Gordon ER, Vogel RL. Effect of antihypertensive samples on physician prescribing patterns. Fam Med. 2002 Nov-Dec;34(10):729-31
  7. Chew, LD, et al. A Physician Survey of the Effect of Drug Sample Availability on Physicians' Behavior. J Gen Int Med. 2000;15: 478-483
  8. Tong KL, Lien CY. Do pharmaceutical representatives misuse their drug samples? Can Fam Physician. 1995;41:1363-1366
  9. Ubel PA, Jepson C, Asch DA. Misperceptions about beta-blockers and diuretics: a national survey of primary care physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(12):977-83
  10. Cutrona SL, Woolhandler S, Lasser KE, Bor DH, McCormick D, Himmelstein DU. Characteristics of recipients of free prescription drug samples: A nationally representative analysis. Am J Public Health. 2008
  11. Westfall JM, McCabe H, Nicholas RA. Personal use of drug samples by physicians and office staff. JAMA. 1997;278:141-143. Comments in JAMA. 1998;279:1698-99
  12. Fugh-Berman, A. The Corporate Coauthor. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 June; 20(6): 546-548.
  13. Flanigan et al. "Prevalence of Articles with Honorary Authors and Ghost Authors in Peer-Reviewed Medical Journals." JAMA .1998. 280(3). 222-224.
  14. Relman, A. Separating Continuing Medical Education from Pharmaceutical Marketing. JAMA. 2001; 185: 2009-2012.
  15. Brennan, T. et al. Health Industry Practices that Create Conflicts of Interest. JAMA. 2006; 295: 429-433.
  16. Schneider JA, Arora V, Kasza K, Van Harrison R, Humphrey H. Residents' Perceptions Over Time of Pharmaceutical Industry Interactions and Gifts and the Effect of an Educational Intervention. Acad Med. 2006 Jul;81(7):595-602
  17. Wofford JL, Ohl CA. Teaching appropriate interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives: The impact of an innovative workshop on student attitudes. BMC Med Educ. 2005 Feb 8;5(1):5.
  18. Brendan B. McCormick et al., "Effect of Restricting Contact Between Pharmaceutical Company Representatives and Internal Medicine Residents on Posttraining Attitudes and Behavior," JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 286, no. 16 (2001): 1994-1999.
  19. American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. Position Paper: Physician-Industry Relations. Part 1: Individual Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:396-402.
  20. American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. Position Paper: Physician-Industry Relations. Part 2: Organizational Issues. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:403-406.
  21. Dana J, Loewenstein G.A. A social science perspective on gifts to physicians from industry. JAMA. 2003;290:252-5
  22. Griffith D. Reasons for not seeing drug reps. BMJ. 1999; 319: 69-70
  23. Abbasi K and Smith R. No More Free Lunches. BMJ 2003;326:1155-1156
  24. Orlowski JP and Wateska L. The effects of pharmaceutical firm enticements on physician prescribing patterns. Chest. 1992; 102:270-273.
  25. Neurath P. Ban on drug samples urged. Puget Sound Business Journal. June 2, 2006 2006.
  26. Donohue JM, Cevasco M, Rosenthal MB. A decade of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:673-681
  27. Steinbrook, R. "Commercial support and continuing medical education." NEJM 352(3):534-535. 2005

News and Other Articles:

  1. Institute of Medicine as a Profession
  2. Copyright 2015
  3. Should Academic Physicians Serve on Drug-Company Boards?
  4. Glaxo Says It Will Stop Paying Doctors to Promote Drugs
  5. Conflicts of Interest in Medical Education Recommendations From the Pew Task Force on Medical Conflicts of Interest
  6. Managing Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Care: The “Race to the Middle” at U.S. Medical Schools
  7. Groundbreaking Oregon DOJ cases target doctors' failure to inform patients about device payments
  8. UT System lets MD Anderson president keep drugmaker ties
  9. Institute of Medicine as a Profession – Conflict of Interest Policy Database
    Copyright 2015
  10. Grassley: ;

Other Links:

  1. PhRMA Code of Interactions with Healthcare Professionals
  2. NIH Office of Extramural Research Conflict of Interest
  3. PDF iconPhysician Payments Sunshine Provisions in Health Care Reform Fact Sheet
  4. American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard
  5. PDF iconInstitute on Medicine as a Profession's assessment of UI Carver College of Medicine's COI policies

Policies from other Academic Medical Centers: